I can answer for Amazon.
In Amazon, growth as an SDE is quite rapid.
Say you have joined as an SDE-1 fresh out of college. Within 2–2.5 years (on avg), you can get promoted to next level (SDE-II). And within next 3–4 years you can get promoted to SDE-III. From there on, to Principal Engineer (PE) and forward becomes little tough. It depends mostly on the kind project you are doing and the business/technical impact it has(d).
For lateral hires, the timeline would fluctuate +/- ~6 months.
In Amazon, learning curve is pretty steep. Each year you will evolve as an SDE. The scale at which you work, the technical choices you make will help you become technically sound with in-depth of knowledge of the technologies you use.